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Isotropic and Anisotropic Magnets

Magnetic Characteristics

 Isotropic Magnetic Rolls

There are two kinds of magnets, isotropic and anisotropic.

Isotropic

This is a magnet whose crystal grains do not have their easy magnetization axis lined up in a specific direction and whose magnetic characteristic is isotropic. Isotropic magnets include bond magnets using quick-cooled thin alloy as the raw material and isotropic ferrite magnets, but their magnetic characteristics are inferior to those of anisotropic magnets.

Rare Earth sintered magnets can not be made isotropic.

Anisotropic

A magnet whose crystal grain directions are aligned and have their easy magnetization axis lined up is called an anisotropic magnet.

Ferrite Crystal and Easy Magnetization Direction

The shape of a ferrite crystal is similar to a short hexagonal prism. By magnetizing in the direction of the prism height, a strong magnet can be made.

Magnetic Direction

Crystal Arrangement of an Isotropic Magnet

Isotropic Magnetiic DirectionThe crystal direction and arrangement of isotropic crystals are various, so a magnet with the same strength can be made by magnetizing from any arrow direction.

Crystal Arrangement of an Anisotropic Magnet

Anisotropic Magnetiic DirectionThe crystal direction and arrangement of anisotropic crystals are unidirectional in the easy magnetization direction, so a strong magnet can be made only by magnetizing from the easy magnetization direction of the arrow.
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Pull Strength
Neodymium Rare Earth Magnet

The Pull Force is the force required to pull a magnet free from a flat steel plate using force perpendicular to the surface. This is the standard for testing  magnet pull strength. Air gaps and changes in surface material will substantially reduce the effectiveness of the pull force, or pull strength of the magnet.

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